Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture

Date: 2016-09-27
Authors Xing-Can Yao, Hao-Ze Chen, Yu-Ping Wu, Xiang-Pei Liu, Xiao-Qiong Wang, Xiao Jiang, Youjin Deng, Yu-Ao Chen, and Jian-Wei Pan
Journal No. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 145301
Abstract Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.